Research Papers & Publications

Books

2018 (re-release) Secrets to a Successful Kickstarter book: free PDF download (epub on Amazon)

2016 The Beep Book: Documenting the History of Game Sound (on Amazon)

2014 The Oxford Handbook of Interactive Audio (on Amazon)

2013 Playing With Sound: A Theory of Interacting with Sound and Music in Video Games. (on Amazon)

2012 A Bang, A Whimper and A Beat: Industrial Music and Dystopia.

2008 Game Sound: An Introduction to the History, Theory and Practice of Video Game Music and Sound Design (on Amazon)

2008 From Pac Man to Pop Music: Interactive Audio in Games and New Media (on Amazon)

Journal Papers

2018 K. Collins and R. Dockwray. Experimental Sound Mixing for “The Well”, a Short Film Made for Tablets. Leonardo Music Journal

2017 J. Robb, T. Garner, K. Collins and L. Nacke. The Impact of Health-Related Sounds on Player Experience. Games and Simulation.

2017 B. Kapralos, K.Collins and A. Uribe-Quevebo. The Senses and Virtual Environments. Sense and Society. 12/01 pp 69-75

2017 K. Collins. Desert Island Diskettes: A Journey through Video Game Sound History GAME Journal Special Issue on game music: “Hear the music, play the game” Issue 6.

2016 K. Collins. Game Sound in the Mechanical Arcades: An Audio Archaeology. Game Studies 16/01

2015 K. Collins and R. Dockwray. Sonic Proxemics and the Art of Persuasion: An Analytical Framework. Leonardo Music Journal 25, pp. 53-56.

2015 J. Lam, B. Kapralos, K. Kanev, K. Collins, A. Hogue and M. Jenkin. Sound Localization on a Horizontal Surface: Virtual and Real Sound Localization. Virtual Reality Vol. 19 Issue 3, pp. 213-222

J. Lam, B. Kapralos, K. Collins, A. Hogue, K. Kanev and M. Jenkin. Sound Localization on Table-Top Computers: A Comparison of Two Amplitude Panning Methods. Computers in Entertainment. Vol 12, issue 2.

2014 D. Rojas, B. Cowan, B. Kapralos, K. Collins, and A. Dubrowski. The effect of contextual sound cues on visual fidelity perception. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics Vol 196: Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 21. 346 – 352

K. Collins and B. Kapralos. Sound Design for Interactive Media: Introducing Students to Sound. Journal of Sonic Studies. 6/1

2013 K. Collins Sonic Subjectivity and Auditory Perspective in Ratatouille. Animation Journal. 8/3 283-299.

2013 D. Rojas, B. Kapralos, A. Hogue, K. Collins, S. Cristancho, L. Nacke, C. Conati, and A. Dubrowski. Developing Effective Serious Games: The Effect of Ambient Auditory Conditions on Visual Fidelity Perception in Stereoscopic 3D. IEEE Transactions on System Man and Cybernetics part B, 43(6): 1572 – 1583, 2013.

2013 M. Dixon, K. Collins, K. Harrigan, C. Graydon and J. Fugelsang. Using sound to unmask losses disguised as wins in multiline slot machines. Journal of Gambling Studies. October 2013. DOI

2013 M. Dixon, K. A. Harrigan, D. Santesso, C. Graydon, J. A. Fugelsang and K. Collins. The impact of sound in modern multiline video slot machine play. Journal of Gambling Studies.

2012 K. Collins and P. Taillon. Visualized Sound Effect Icons for Improved Multimedia Accessibility. Entertainment Computing. Volume 3 Issue 1, 11-17.

2011 K. Harrigan, M. Dixon, V. MacLaren, K. Collins and J. Fugelsang. The maximum rewards at the lowest price: Reinforcement rates and payback percentages in multiline slot machines. Journal of Gambling Issues 26, 11-29.

2011. A. Wharton and K. Collins. Subjective Measures of the Influence of Music Personalization on Video Game Play: A Pilot Study. Game Studies. 11(2) May 2011.

2011. K. Collins, U. Önen and R. Stevens. Designing an International Curriculum Guideline: Problems and Solutions. Journal of Game Design and Development Education 1/1.

2010 M.J. Dixon, K. A. Harrigan, R. Sandhu, K. Collins, and J.A. Fugelsang, Losses Disguised as Wins in Modern Multi-Line Video Slot Machines. Addiction.105/10, 1819–1824.

2010 K. Collins, B. Kapralos and K. Kanev. Smart Table Computer Interaction Interfaces with Integrated Sound. Journal of Three Dimensional Images 24/3, 58–67.

2009 K. Collins. An Introduction to Procedural Audio in Video Games. Contemporary Music Review, Special Issue on Algorithmic Generative Audio. 28/1, 5–15 .

2008 K. Collins. In the Loop: Confinements and Creativity in 8-Bit Video Games Music. Twentieth Century Music. 4/1, 209–227.

2008 K. Collins. Grand Theft Audio?: Video Games and Licensed IP. Music and the Moving Image. 1/1.

2007 K. Collins. Video Games Killed the Cinema Star. Music, Sound and the Moving Image. 1/1. 15–20 .

2007 K. Collins and P. Tagg. L’estetica sonora della industrial music [=Sonic aesthetics of industrial music]. In-formazione 2/07, 21–24 (Translation by Claudia Polo). Translation and re-print of 2001 conference paper.

2006 K. Collins. Flat Twos and the Musical Aesthetic of the Atari VCS. Popular Musicology Online. .

2006 K. Collins. Loops and Bloops: Music on the Commodore 64. Soundscapes: Journal of Media Culture. 8. February 2006.

2005 K. Collins. Dead Channel Surfing: Commonalities between Industrial Music and Cyberpunk Literature. Popular Music. 24/2. 165–78.

2004 K. Collins. From Bits to Hits: Video Games Music Changes its Tune. Film International. 12, 4–19.

2003 K. Collins and P. Tagg. Industrialna estetyka dźwiękowa: rekonstrukcja pejzaży dźwiękowych przeszłości z perspektywy współczesnej alienacji i przyszłej dystopii [= The Sonic Aesthetics of the Industrial: Re-Constructing Yesterday’s Soundscape for Today’s Alienation and Tomorrow’s Dystopia.] Gościniec Sztuki. 1/8 VII, 34–47. (Translation by Andrzej Dorobek) Translation and reprint of 2001 conference paper.

Published Conference Papers

2016 B. Cowan, B. Kapralos and K. Collins. Spatial Audio Modelling to Provide Artificially Intelligent Characters with Realistic Sound Perception. GameSoundCon, Los Angeles, September

2016 B. Cullen, K. Collins, A. Hogue and B. Kapralos. Sound and Stereoscopic 3D: Examining the effects of sound on depth perception in stereoscopic 3D. International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications (IISA 2016) Chalkidiki, Greece.

2015 K. Collins, A. Hodge, B. Kapralos and R. Dockwray. Veemix: Integration of Musical User-Generated Content in Games. Audio Engineering Society Audio For Games 2015. February 11-13 2015, London, UK

J. Lam, B. Kapralos, K. Kanev, K. Collins, A. Hogue, M. Jenkin. The Effect of Sound on Visual Quality Perception and Task Completion Time in a Cel-Shaded Serious Gaming Virtual Environment. Qomex 2015 The 8th International Workshop on Quality of MultiMedia Experience. Costa Navarino, Greece. May 26-29.

2014 D. Rojas, B. Cowan, B. Kapralos, K. Collins, and A. Dubrowski. The effect of contextual sound cues on visual fidelity perception. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Manhattan Beach, CA, USA, February 20-22.

2013 B. Cowan, D. Rojas, B. Kapralos, K. Collins, and A. Dubrowski. Visual Quality Perception and Task Completion Time in the Presence of Spatial Sound. International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2013. Montreal, June 2-7.

2013 C. Zerebecki, B. Stanfield, A. Hogue, B. Kapralos, K. Collins. S3D Depth-Axis interaction for video games: performance and engagement. Stereoscopic Displays and Applications. IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, Burlingame, California, February 3-7.

2013 B. Stanfield, C. Zerebecki, A. Hogue, B. Kapralos, K. Collins. Impact of Floating Windows on the accuracy of depth perception in games. Stereoscopic Displays and Applications. IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, Burlingame, California, February 3-7.

2013 M. Tawadrous, A. Hogue, B. Kapralos, K. Collins. An interactive in-game approach to User Adjustment of Stereoscopic 3D Settings. Stereoscopic Displays and Applications. IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, Burlingame, California, February 3-7.

2013 B. Cullen, D. Galperin, K. Collins, Andrew Hogue and Bill Kapralos. The Effects of 5.1 sound presentation on the perception of stereoscopic imagery in games. Stereoscopic Displays and Applications. IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging, Burlingame, CA, February 3-7.

2012 B. Cullen, D. Galperin, K. Collins, B. Kapralos and A. Hogue. The Effects of Audio on Depth Perception in S3D Games. ACM Audio Mostly 2012. Corfu, September 26-28.

2012 K. Collins and B. Kapralos. Beyond the Screen: What we can learn about game design from audio-based games. 5th International Conference on Computer Games Multimedia and Allied Technology. Bali, May 7-8.

2012 D. Nakano, J. Lam, B. Kapralos, K. Collins, A. Hogue, K. Kanev, M. Jenkin. A framework for Sound Localization Experiments and Automation. ACM HCCE: The Joint International Conference on Human-Centered Computer Environments. Aizu, Japan, March 8-13.

2012 D. Rojas, B. Kapralos, S. Cristancho, K. Collins, A. Hogue, C. Conati and A. Dubrowski. Developing Effective Serious Games: The effect of background sound on visual fidelity perception with varying texture resolution. MMVR19: Medicine Meets Virtual Reality. Newport Beach, February 9-11.

2011 K. Collins, P. Taillon, and B. Kapralos. Experimenting with a Framework for Networked Mobile Audio Arrays. Audio Engineering Society 44th Conference on Audio Networking. San Diego, November 18-20.

2011 A. Hodge, K. Collins, K. Lam and P. Taillon. Musical Mood-Based Mobile Gaming. International Games Innovation Conference. IEEE Consumer Electronics Society. Orange, CA, November 2-3.

2011 K. Collins. Making Gamers Cry: Mirror Neurons and Embodied Interaction with Game Sound. ACM SIGCHI AudioMostly 2011 – 6th Conference on Interaction with Sound. Coimbra, Portugal, September 2011.

2011 D. Gualdron, B. Kapralos, S. Cristancho, K. Collins, C. Conati, A. Dubrowski. The Effect of Background Sound on Visual Fidelity Perception. ACM SIGCHI AudioMostly 2011 – 6th Conference on Interaction with Sound. Coimbra, Portugal, September 7-9.

2011 K. Collins, P. Taillon and B. Kapralos. Framework for distributed audio smartphone games. ACM SIGGRAPH 2011. Vancouver, August 7-11.

2011 K. Collins, A. Hodge, B. Kapralos, and A. Hogue. Audio Air Hockey: A Pilot Study in Using Audio-Based Games for the Measurement of Loudspeaker Placement Preferences. Audio Engineering Society 41st Conference: Audio for Games, London, February 2-4.

2010. Turn that noise off! Making sound effects accessible Game Develeopers Conference poster 2010 K. Collins, B. Kapralos, K. Kanev. Using games as a method of evaluation of usability and user experience in human-computer interaction design. ACM HC2010: The 13th International Conference on Humans and Computers. Aizu, December 8-10.

2010 J. Lam, B. Kapralos, K. Collins, A. Hogue, and K. Kanev. Amplitude Panning-Based Sound System for a Horizontal Surface Computer: A User-Based Study. IEEE International Symposium on Haptic Audio Visual Environments and Games. Phoenix, October 16–17.

2010 K. Harrigan, K. Collins, M. Dixon and J. Fugelsang. Addictive Gameplay: What Casual Game Designers Can Learn from Slot Machine Research. In ACM FuturePlay 2010 International Conference on the Future of Game Design and Technology. Vancouver, May 6–8.

2010 K. Collins, B. Kapralos, A. Hogue and K. Kanev. An Exploration of Distributed Mobile Audio and Games. (extended abstract). In ACM FuturePlay 2010 International Conference on the Future of Game Design and Technology. Vancouver, May 6–8.

2009 K. Collins, B. Kapralos and K. Kanev. Sound Interface Design for Smart Table Interaction. HC2009: The 12th International Conference on Humans and Computers. Hamamatsu, Japan, December 9–11.

2009 K. Collins and P. Taillon. Archetypal Sound Effect Icons for Improved Multimedia Accessibility. HC2009: The 12th International Conference on Humans and Computers. Hamamatsu, Japan, December 9–11.

2009 K. Collins and J. Tomasson Goodwin. Client-Based Learning Models: Student-Designed Games for Business Applications (extended abstract). In Proceedings of the ACM FuturePlay Conference on the Future of Game Design and Technology. Vancouver, May 12–13.

2009 K. Collins. Generating Meaningful Sound: Quantifying the Affective Attributes of Sound Effects for Real-Time Sound Synthesis. Audio Engineering Society 35th International Conference: Audio for Games, London, UK. February 11–13.

2001 K. Collins and P. Tagg. The Sonic Aesthetics of the Industrial: Re-Constructing Yesterday’s Soundscape for Today’s Alienation and Tomorrow’s Dystopia. Sound Practice UK: UK/Ireland Soundscape Community, ed. John Drever. 101–108.

Patents & Other Papers

Patent: Method and System for Visual Represntation of Sound PCT/CA2009/001902

2014 Phil Brown, Rick Cohen, K. Collins, Aaron Higgins, Josh McMahon, Mikko Suvanto, Guy Whitmore, George Sanger, Mark Estadale, Jay Smith, Alex Westner, Tom White, “Group Report: Interactive Music Creation and Adoption - The Quest Continues!!!”: Project Bar-B-Q Group report.

2013 D. Berol, K. Collins, P. Drescher, R. Granovetter, W. Hutson, A. Kraemer, K. Merkher, D. Tan. Group Report: Form Factors and Connectivity for Wearable Audio Devices. Project Bar-B-Q Group report.

2012 I. Chor, K. Collins, P. Drescher, K. Heiden, A. Higgins, T. Howe, T. White. Cloud Music Services. Project Bar-B-Q Group report.

2011 K. Brennan, W. Chien, K. Collins, A. Higgins, R. O’Neill. Making Music Magical Again for Fun and Profit. Project Bar-B-Q Group report.

2010 K. Collins, A. Higgins, S. Kay, S. Snyder, S. Jang, H. Pyle, C. Grigg and A. Ben Kiki. Hear, There and Everywhere. Report on future of mobile audio applications. Project Bar-B-Q Group report.

K. Collins, K. Felton, B. Fuller, T. Hankinson, S. Harwood, K. Heiden, S. Horowitz, D. Javelosa, R. Kazandjian, J. Rippie, M. Sweet, R. Stevens, M. Worth, U. Önen. Game Audio Curriculum Guideline. Full curriculum guideline produced in coordination with the Interactive Audio Special Interest Group and released at the Game Developers Conference. This 37-page curriculum guideline was published after 2 years of interviews and work with industry to produce a guide for game audio teaching. The guideline was written about in the industry magazine Audio Media, April 2010, and on CBC Online in September 2010.

2009 A. Brandon, K. Collins, D. Kastbauer, J. Kwasneski, J. Lewis, D. Lieberman, J. Prum. So You Want to Work in Game Audio? Report on needs of industry to work with academe to ensure skills match between students and employer requirements. Project Bar-B-Q Group report.

2008 S. Ashby, T. Bush, K. Collins, J. Daoust, N. Duveau, J. Lewis, C. Robinson, T. White, G. Whitmore. Overcoming Roadblocks in the Quest for Interactive Audio. Report on state of adaptive audio in video games, and a proposal for an adaptive audio artificial intelligence engine. Project Bar-B-Q Group report.

Book Chapters

2017 K. Collins and R. Dockwray: Drive, speed and narrative in the soundscape of racing games. Routledge Companion to Screen Music and Sound. Miguel Mera, Ron Sadoff and Ben Winters, (Eds.) Routledge

2016 B. Kapralos, F. Moussa, K. Collins and A. Dubrowski. Fidelity and Multi-Modal Interactions. Techniques to Improve the Effectiveness of Serious Games. Pieter Wouters and Herre van Oostendorp, (Eds.) Springer Press. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-39298-1_5

2015 M. Dixon, J. Templeton, K. Collins, L. Wojtowicz, K. Harrigan, J. Fugelsang & V. Siu. Exploring attention in the “reel” world: Visual and auditory influences on near-misses in multi-line slot machine play. J. Fawcett, E. F. Risko, & A. Kingstone (Eds.), The Handbook of Attention (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)

2015 R. Dockwray and K. Collins. A Symphony of Sound: Surround Sound and Formula One Racing Games. Living Stereo. Paul Théberge, Kyle Devine and Tom Everett (Eds.) Continuum International Publishing Group.

2014 K. Collins. A History of Electronic Handheld and Mobile Video Game Sound. The Oxford Handbook of Mobile Music Studies. Sumanth Gopinath and Jason Stanyek (Eds.), Oxford University Press

2013 K. Collins. Breaking the Fourth Wall: User-Generated Sonic Content in Virtual Worlds. Oxford Handbook of Virtuality, Oxford University Press. Mark Grimshaw (Ed.)

K. Collins. Implications of Interactivity: What does it mean for sound to be interactive? Oxford Handbook of Audio-Visual Aesthetics. John Richardson and Claudia Gorbman (Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press

2012 K. Collins. One-Bit Wonders: Video Game Sound Before the Crash. Before the Crash: Early Video Game History. Mark J. P. Wolf (Ed.), 119-137. Wayne State University Press

2011 K. Collins. Grand Theft Audio?: Video Games and Licensed IP. Popular Music and Multimedia. J. McQuinn (Ed.). Aldershot: Ashgate 2011. Reprint of 2008 journal article.

2011 K. Collins, H. Tessler, K. A. Harrigan, M. J. Dixon and J. Fugelsang. Sound in Electronic Gambling Machines: A Review of the Literature and its Relevance to Game Sound. Game Sound Technology and Player Interaction: Concepts and Developments. Mark Grimshaw (Ed.), London: IGI Global, 1–21.

2009 K. Collins. Like Razors through Flesh: The Sonic Aesthetics of Hell in the Hellraiser Films. Terror Tracks. Philip Hayward and Rebecca Leydon (Eds.), London: Equinox Press, 196–210

2008 K. Collins. Introduction. From Pac Man to Pop Music: Interactive Audio in Games and New Media. Karen Collins (Ed) Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 1–12.

2007 K. Collins. An Introduction to the Participatory and Non-Linear Aspects of Video Games Audio. Essays on Sound and Vision. Stan Hawkins and John Richardson (Eds.). Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 263–298. Re-printed in Routledge Major Works Collection, 2015.

2003 K. Collins. I’ll be back: Recurrent Sonic Motifs in the Terminator Films. Off the Planet: Music, Sound and Sci-Fi Cinema. Philip Hayward (Ed.). London: John Libbey Press, 165–175.

Online writing

2018 Ototoxicity: Is your medication damaging your hearing? A Sound Effect


2017 A Day Without Sound Audiokinetic Blog


2016 Behind ‘BEEP’ – The gigantic game audio history project A Sound Effect


What is Sound Research? Designing Sound


2013 The Sound of Music, or th Music of Sound? Designing Sound